THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 149 grammar and philosophy at Tours and at Paris, then went to Bologna for lectures on canon law, afterwards returned to Paris to take up the study of theology, and ended his career as a master in England. Such changing from place to place inevitably raised the question of the standing of the masters in different universities. The case of the older universities was comparatively simple. On the strength of their reputation, they claimed for their masters the jus ubique docendi, the right to teach everywhere in Europe " without any prelude of new examination or approval or any duty of beginning again, or obtaining anyone's leave"; and the claim was generally, but by no means always, admitted. But what about the new universities which lacked the standing of the old ? The king of the country in which they were situated might grant them special privileges, as was done in Spain; and it was important that they should receive these privileges if they were to attract students from other countries. But, after all, such recognition was merely local. It could not affect their relations with other universities. The solution of the problem was indicated by the fact that at the beginning of the Thirteenth Century universities began to be founded by monarchs and popes for reasons of policy. Gradually it came to be recognized that the only way in which a university could get proper standing was to get its charter of foundation from a universal sovereign. That meant that either the pope as the religious head of Europe or the Emperor as the secular head of the Empire must give a university his imprimatur to make its degrees of general validity. This is why most of the universities other than the first few were founded either by an imperial decree or, most commonly, by a papal Bull. So well established was this principle by the end of the Thirteenth Century that even the older universities like Paris and Oxford sought to strengthen their position by seeking from the pope an express recognition of the jits ubique docendi for their graduates. In this way the universities of Europe were brought directly under the jurisdiction of the pope, and the licence to teach which had originally been conferred by the chancellor of a cathedral or some other Church dignitary for purely local purposes came to be given on behalf of the pope as a universal qualification.